建立和維繫卓越的公務體系 前澳洲駐台代表露珍怡分享澳洲經驗

政府政策

「澳洲公務人員體系」透過良善治理、與社會的溝通以及人才的招聘、留住和持續學習,為我們的人民服務,並支撐著我們的民主。

The Australian Public Service (APS) 澳洲公務人員體系

One of the foundational institutions of our democracy is the Australian Public Service, the APS – or ‘civil service’. The APS performs a critical role, supporting the government of the day to perform efficiently and effectively in order to fulfil its responsibilities. It is apolitical, merit-based, open, and underpinned by integrity.

「澳洲公務人員體系」(APS),也就是俗稱的公務體系,是澳洲民主立基之一,在輔佐當前政府有效率且妥善地履行職責上,扮演關鍵角色。「澳洲公務人員體系」是一個非政治性、以能力為基礎且公開的機構,並以清廉至上為己律。

Just like other institutions, the APS also needs to continually reform to remain “fit for purpose” – to prepare for future opportunities and challenges, and to best serve all citizens now, and in the future. A well-functioning civil service is essential to create a more prosperous economy and society for all citizens.

如同其他機關,「澳洲公務人員體系」也需要透過不斷的改革,以符合原始設立宗旨,做好準備面對未來的機遇和挑戰,並提供現在和未來的人民最好的服務。一個運作良好的公務體系對為大眾創造一個更加繁榮的經濟和社會至關重要。

For civil servants, the APS offers us the opportunity to make our societies a better place, and make a real difference to peoples’ lives. In essence, our role is to serve the community – to deliver on the government’s priorities, to provide the highest quality advice, to ensure high-quality services, and to implement decisions effectively and efficiently.

當公務人員提供我們一個特殊的機會,能讓我們的社會更加美好,並為人民的生活帶來實質的改變。我們角色的本質是服務社會,執行政府優先政策事項,提供最優質的建議,確保高品質的服務,以及有效率和妥善地將決策落實。

Australia is a federation comprising the Australian Government, and six states and two territory governments, each with their own civil service. The APS has 150,000 employees, 14 different Departments and some 100 agencies and authorities, in more than 500 locations across Australia and around the world. It is supported by the Australian Public Service Commission (APSC) – a small policy agency that works to position our workforce for the future, and ensure it meets the expectations of the Australian Government and people. The APSC works to: support quality workforce management; build leadership for the future; lift capability; and foster trust in civil service integrity.

澳洲是由聯邦政府、六個州政府及兩個領地政府所組成的聯邦制國家,各政府有自己的公務體系。「澳洲公務人員體系」有十五萬名員工、十四個部門、近百個局處,在澳洲及海外有五百多個據點,並由「澳洲公共服務委員會」督導。「澳洲公共服務委員會」作為一小型決策機構,肩負制定公務體系未來定位與走向的責任,確保該體系能滿足澳洲政府和人民的期待。「澳洲公共服務委員會」主要工作職掌包括:保障人事管理品質、建構未來領導力、提升人員能力,以及加強外界對公務體系廉潔的信任度。

The APSC’s Commissioner reports annually to the Australian Parliament on the state of the APS, including changes in the environment and infrastructure of the APS and emerging issues.

「澳洲公共服務委員會」主任委員每年須向澳洲國會就「澳洲公務人員體系」現況提出報告,包括工作環境及機構性的調整與變化,以及所面臨的新興議題。

The APS seeks to reflect the diversity of Australian society, including specific strategies to attract more Indigenous people, people with a disability, and people from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, into the APS. This enables us to better support the Australian people, and to better engage with our international partners.

「澳洲公務人員體系」努力追求反映澳洲社會多元特性,透過具體措施吸引更多原住民、身心障礙人士以及來自不同文化和語言背景的人加入。這使我們能夠更完善地支持澳洲人民所需,並更全面地與國際合作夥伴互動交流。

We believe the APS performs at its best when we work together, with a clear purpose, bringing together different perspectives and disciplines to address challenges – ensuring the best possible governance, and the best possible service.

我們深信在明確目標下共同努力,匯集不同觀點及領域專業應對挑戰,「澳洲公務人員體系」才能有最佳的表現,確保最理想的治理模式,並盡可能地提供最好的服務。

The challenge of COVID clearly underscored the importance of the APS, and the importance of good governance. Just as in Taiwan, our civil service was called on to demonstrate enormous flexibility, resilience, and compassion. We have played a central role in protecting people’s health, and supporting communities recover from a global pandemic – providing high – quality advice to government, protecting our citizens at home and overseas, and supporting wellbeing and productivity.

疫情帶來的挑戰清楚地凸顯了「澳洲公務人員體系」及良善治理的重要性。跟臺灣一樣,我們的公務體系在疫情期間,展現了極大的靈活性、韌性和同理心。我們在維護人們的健康和支持社區從全球嚴峻疫情中復甦上,扮演核心角色,這包括提供政府最佳建議、保護海內外公民,以及確保人民福祉與社會生產力。

The APS Values, Employment Principles, and Code of Conduct

澳洲公務人員價值綱領、雇用原則與行為準則

In Australia, civil servants are bound by a set of values – the APS Values – and a Code of Conduct, which underpin our work and all our dealings with government and the Australian people.

在澳洲,公務員得遵守明文規定的價值觀—即所謂「澳洲公務人員價值觀綱領」—和「行為準則」的規範,並以此為我們與政府及人民往來互動的基礎。

The Values embody the principles of good public administration which lie at the heart of the democratic process, and the confidence that the public has in the way civil servants exercise authority when meeting government objectives. The Values require that civil servants are impartial, committed to service, accountable, respectful and ethical.

「澳洲公務人員價值觀綱領」體現了良好政府的原則;這些原則是民主制度的核心,也是人民對公務員行使公權力以落實政府所設政策目標的信心來源。「澳洲公務人員價值觀綱領」要求公務員們秉持公正、服務至上、負責、尊重及符合道德的處事精神。

Good public administration is a protection not only against inefficiency and poor performance, but also against fraud, corruption, inequity, inability to conduct business confidently, and infringement of human rights.

優良公共行政的存在不只可避免效率低下和不佳表現,同時亦可防止詐欺、貪腐、不平等、無法自信地駕馭工作及侵犯人權等情事。

Crucially, the APS is apolitical and provides the Government with advice that is frank, honest, timely and based on the best available evidence; it is seen as trustworthy; and is open and accountable to the Australian community under law.

更重要的是「澳洲公務人員體系」堅守行政中立的立場,依據既有事證提供政府坦率、誠實且及時的政策建議,並被視為可信賴的、公開透明的組織,依法對澳洲社會大眾負責。

We also have a set of Employment Principles, that are a statement of standards for the APS as an employer and provide for employment arrangements that are fair and transparent, and a safe, diverse, non-discriminatory and merit-based workplace.

我們也制定了「雇用原則」,並以此為「澳洲公務人員體系」作為雇主的聘用標準聲明,確保在就業安排上提供了一個公平、透明、安全、多元、不受歧視和以能力為基礎的工作環境。

Together, the APS Values and Employment Principles shape the organisational culture of the APS. They are core components of a positive culture, fostering high performance and leadership, and a united 'one APS'.

「澳洲公務人員價值觀綱領」和「雇用原則」共同塑造了「澳洲公務人員體系」的組織文化,是形塑我們良好職場文化、高績效、領導力培育和團結一心信念的關鍵部分。

Senior leaders in the APS are required to uphold the Values and Employment Principles, and to promote them by personal example.

「澳洲公務人員體系」資深領導階層肩負維護上述價值觀和原則的責任,並須以身作則地加以推廣。

All civil servants are required to comply with the Code of Conduct, and at all times to uphold the APS Values and Employment Principles, and the integrity and good reputation of their agency and the APS. A breach of the Code of Conduct can result in sanctions, ranging from a reprimand to termination of employment.

所有公務員皆須遵守「行為準則」,從一而終地維護「澳洲公務人員價值觀綱領」和「雇用原則」,並捍衛所屬機關及「澳洲公務人員體系」的誠信及聲譽。任何違反「行為準則」的舉措將可能受到制裁,懲處範圍從申誡到終止僱傭皆有可能。

Recruitment 招聘

The APS has a range of career opportunities, while also providing the scope to change career direction. Recruitment is conducted by individual agencies through a competitive process, and many people start in the APS though a graduate trainee program. Mid-career professionals can also join the APS and utilise the skills they have already developed elsewhere. And people can also start in an administrative support or client service role and then develop their skills for managerial, technical or professional careers.

「澳洲公務人員體系」有一系列不同的工作機會,同時也提供了轉換工作跑道的空間。競爭激烈的招聘過程是由各單位自行辦理;很多人是透過研究生培訓計畫加入,也有處於職業生涯中期的專業人士選擇進入「澳洲公務人員體系」,並在此發揮他們過去在他處所學到的技能。在這裡,你可能一開始是做行政或客服相關的工作,但之後轉向管理、技術或專業層面的職涯發展。

APS jobs are advertised widely, and applicants have a chance to review the job description, selection criteria, and the standards expected of the job’s level. The APS recruits staff based on merit, which means that from a field of applicants, we select the best person for the job. To do this we compare and weigh-up the skills, abilities and experience of each applicant. We use different tools and techniques, such as written applications, CVs, interviews and work-sample tests, to collect the evidence we need to make a merit-based decision.

「澳洲公務人員體系」的職缺皆會廣為宣傳;應徵者將可以看到工作內容的詳細描述、篩選條件,以及與該職缺層級相應的預期標準。「澳洲公務人員體系」的徵才標準是要選賢舉能,即在眾多應徵者中找到最適任的人選。因此,我們會比較和衡量每位應徵者的技能、能力和經驗,並透過不同的工具和方式,例如:書面申請、履歷、面試、工作案例測試,作為擇優錄取的依據。

Although it is generally expected that people will be Australian citizens to work in the APS, agencies may choose to employ non-citizens who have the relevant work permits. Other requirements may include a health clearance, security and character clearances (including a police check), a period of probation, or meeting all of the requirements of the employing agency’s entry level training program.

儘管大家普遍會預期在「澳洲公務人員體系」工作的人多為澳洲公民,但有些單位有可能選擇雇用擁有工作資格的非澳洲公民。其他的雇用條件可能包括健康證明、背景安全查核、人格審查(包含警察刑事紀錄審查)、試用期,以及完成雇用單位所要求的入門培訓課程。

Although Canberra is typically seen as the ‘home’ of the APS, around two-thirds of employees are located outside Canberra. The vast majority of jobs are open to the Australian community. Only a very small number are for people already in the APS.

澳洲首都坎培拉雖為「澳洲公務人員體系」總部所在地,但約有約三分之二的人員是在坎培拉以外的地區工作。「澳洲公務人員體系」絕大多數的職位皆開放澳洲社會大眾申請,僅有少部分職缺為內部申調。

However, some jobs are advertised as only available to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people. These are jobs where knowledge of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and cultures, as well as the ability to communicate sensitively with Indigenous Australians, are required. Generally they will involve the development or delivery of Indigenous specific policies, programs or services.

另外,有些職缺只開放給澳洲的原住民及托勒斯海峽群島人申請。因為這些工作需要對澳洲原住民及托勒斯海峽群島人的文化和背景有充分的了解,並需能友善且有效地與原住民溝通。一般來說,這些工作包括與原住民議題相關的政策、計畫或服務的制定和執行。

The APS also takes measures to support the employment of people with disability, and makes reasonable workplace adjustments on the understanding that people with disability can often perform the tasks of a job where adjustments are made to allow them to work to the best of their ability. A particular job in the APS may also be open only to people with disability, or with a particular type of disability, helping address the under-representation of people with disability in APS agencies.

「澳洲公務人員體系」亦採取了措施支持身心障礙人士的就業機會,並體認需調整工作環境,建構友善職場,讓他們能有效地工作。「澳洲公務人員體系」的部分職缺僅開放身心障人士申請,甚至是針對特定類型的身心障礙者,盼藉此協助改善機構內部身心障礙員工代表性不足的問題。

When applying for a job it is likely that applicants will be asked to submit a written application along with their CV. This could be in the form of a statement addressing particular selection criteria, or a short ‘pitch’ or statement setting out their skills, abilities and experience relevant to the job.

應徵者在申請工作時通常會被要求提供書面申請文件和履歷;前者可能是針對規定的標準撰寫的短文,或是說明自身與所申請工作相關的技能、能力或經驗而撰寫的簡單文案或短文。

Applicants need to provide evidence to back up their claims, using actual, specific examples of what they have done, how well they did it, what they achieved, and how it relates to the requirements of the job.

應徵者需要透過實際、具體的例子來證明自己做了什麼、表現如何、達到了什麼目標,以及與申請工作的要求有何關聯性。

Applications are assessed by a Selection Committee, formed for the specific purpose of determining which applicant should be awarded a specific position. Applications are assessed against the requirements of the job and compared with other applicants to make a short-list of those applicants who are suitable, or most suitable, to be considered further. This comparison is generally done by examining an applicant’s CV, application, statement or pitch. Short-listing may sometimes involve a phone or video interview, or use online assessment methods such as video interviews, multiple choice questions or psychometric testing. Virtual or face-to-face interviews may include behavioural-based questions and/or hypothetical scenario questions.

所有應徵者的資料將由特別成立的評選委員會進行評估,以選出最適任的人選。評選委員會將依該職缺的工作要求標準對所有應徵者進行評分,並做交叉比對,以篩選出最適合的人選進入下一輪複試;評選過程通常包括審視應徵者的履歷、申請文件、所撰寫的短文或文案。進入第二輪的應徵者將接受電話或視訊面試,或透過線上評估管道進行複試,例如:視訊面試、選擇題測驗或能力性格測試。而不論是視訊或實體面試,應徵者皆有可能被問到行為面試或情境模擬的問題。

As part of, or in place of an interview, applicants may also be asked to do exercises such as a work sample test, a presentation, or psychometric testing. If an agency is recruiting for a number of jobs, applicants may go through an assessment centre which could include group work exercises.

應徵者也可能被要求進行工作案例測試、簡報或能力性格測試等演練。如果所應徵的單位正好開出多個職缺,應徵者可能會需要通過評估中心的審查,這其中便可能包括進行小組工作演練。

Following the interview or other forms of assessment, the selection panel makes a recommendation to the decisionmaker about who is most suitable for the job. They may first contact referees for confirmation of applicants’ skills, abilities and experience. Once the panel’s recommendation is approved, the successful applicant is offered the job. Unsuccessful applicants can seek feedback on their application, their performance at the interview or on other assessment activities, or where they may need to improve their skills and abilities or gain more experience.

在經過面試或其他形式的評估後,評選小組會向決策者推薦最適任人選,並聯繫入選者所列的推薦人,以便確認他的技能、能力和經驗;一旦評選小組的建議獲得採納,成功通過整個徵選過程的應徵者便確定獲得聘用。未獲錄取的應徵者可就申請文件內容、面試或其他評估活動演練的表現,向所應徵的單位尋求建議回饋,詢問需要提升的技能和能力,以累積經驗。

Once in the APS, employees continue to engage in lifelong, continuous learning. This can include graduate and postgraduate study, secondments to other organisations, on the job training, or study through the APS Academy – our national academy. The Academy provides formal learning and professional development opportunities across the APS, and works to build skills in what we call ‘public-service craft’.

進入「澳洲公務人員體系」後,所有公務員皆將展開終生、持續學習的旅程,不論是透過畢業生培訓計畫、研究所深造、借調到其他單位、在職訓練、或到澳洲國家級文官學院—即「澳洲公務人員學院」進修。「澳洲公務人員學院」提供全體公務員正式進修及專業發展的機會,並致力於培養我們所謂的「公務員所需之技能」。

Each APS agency is also responsible for implementing a Performance Management Framework that assists with this ongoing learning and development, with rewarding and recognising talent, and managing underperformance when required.

「澳洲公務人員體系」的所有單位皆須負責「績效管理架構」的實踐,以協助員工持續學習與發展,獎勵和認可優秀表現,並在必要時處理績效不佳的情況。

Conclusion 結語

Recruitment, retention and the ongoing development of talented civil servants is central to maintaining an effective civil service. And an effective civil service is a foundational institution of any democracy, and in Australia, the civil service is today more nimble and agile, more collaborative, and more professional than ever before.

招聘和留住有才能的公務員,並確保他們能持續成長,對維繫一個良好有效的公務體系至關重要,而一個良好的公務體系是任何一個民主社會的基石。現今澳洲公務員跟以往相比都更靈活敏銳,更願意與他人合作,也更加專業。

We face many challenges and opportunities, and through them we have a chance to make a real, positive difference to people’s lives. No matter our specific role, our work will ultimately impact the lives of our fellow citizens.

透過所面臨的諸多挑戰和機會,我們有機會對人民的生活帶來真正、積極的影響。不論我們各自在這體系中的角色為何,我們所做的事最終都會影響大眾的生活。

This is both a great privilege and a great responsibility. One that must be carried out with integrity, professionalism and humility, and which relies on an efficient, effective, and fair system of recruitment that puts merit at its apex. By ensuring that the best person is hired for any APS job, we ensure that the APS serves the Australian community to the best our ability.

這是一種無比的榮幸,卻也是莫大的責任,需要我們以正直、專業和謙卑的態度應對,也仰賴以能力為導向的高效率、有效和公平的招聘系統。唯有如此,我們才可以確保「澳洲公務人員體系」聘用最適任的人,並因而能盡我們所能地為澳洲社會大眾服務。

There is no manual on how to be a successful public servant. But as our APS Commissioner Peter Woolcott recently told our new recruits:

這世上沒有一本手冊可以告訴我們如何成為一名傑出的公務員,但「澳洲公務人員體系」主任委員彼得‧沃考特最近對新進公務員提到了以下幾點:

Be authentic, and true to yourself.

要真誠,做真實的自己。

Be bold and put your ideas forward.

要勇敢,大膽提出自己的想法。

Be open, be curious and be collegial.

要心胸開闊,保有好奇心和團體合作精神。

Think creatively, and do not be afraid of failure.

要懂得創新思考,不要害怕失敗。

If you make mistakes, own them and learn from them.

如果犯了錯,承認錯誤並從中學習。

Always proceed with integrity, honesty and a good conscience and ask for guidance if you need it.

始終秉持正直、誠信和良心行事,並在需要時尋求指導。

Be well informed, beyond the area of your expertise, understand the whole of government context, and the political and the global context.

除了自我專業領域外,也要能確實掌握與政府整體運作、國內政治及全球大環境的相關資訊。

Fundamental to the public service is that we are impartial.

身為公務員,我們的根本態度是必須保持公正中立。

Embrace challenges and embrace change. Be adaptable and open to different ways of working and thinking.

勇於迎接挑戰和變化,具備適應力,保持開放心態,因應不同的工作方式和思維模式 。

By following these principles, by recruiting a high quality and diverse staff, and by listening carefully to the needs of the community, the APS will continue to deliver the essential services and provide the outstanding policy advice that has served Australia so well to date.

透過遵循這些原則,通過招聘高素質和多元背景的員工,並仔細聆聽社會的需求,「澳洲公務人員體系」將持續提供必要的服務,以及迄今為止符合澳洲社會福祉的絕佳政策建議。

本文作者為澳洲駐台代表Jenny Bloomfield 露珍怡,授權轉載自《國家人力資源論壇》。更多精彩內容,請<點此(編按:露珍怡女士日前離任,現任澳洲駐台代表為Robert Fergusson馮國斌)